Geert J. Verhoeven

PhD Archaeology

University of Vienna

Franz-Klein-Gasse 1
Room A5.04 (5th floor)
1190 Vienna

AUTOGRAF—AUTomated Orthorectification of GRAFfiti Photos

Journal article

Benjamin Wild, Geert J. Verhoeven, Martin Wieser, Camillo Ressl, Jona Schlegel, Stefan Wogrin, Johannes Otepka-Schremmer, Norbert Pfeifer
Heritage, vol. 5(4), 2022, pp. 2987-3009

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APA   Click to copy
Wild, B., Verhoeven, G. J., Wieser, M., Ressl, C., Schlegel, J., Wogrin, S., … Pfeifer, N. (2022). AUTOGRAF—AUTomated Orthorectification of GRAFfiti Photos. Heritage, 5(4), 2987–3009.

Chicago/Turabian   Click to copy
Wild, Benjamin, Geert J. Verhoeven, Martin Wieser, Camillo Ressl, Jona Schlegel, Stefan Wogrin, Johannes Otepka-Schremmer, and Norbert Pfeifer. “AUTOGRAF—AUTomated Orthorectification of GRAFfiti Photos.” Heritage 5, no. 4 (2022): 2987–3009.

MLA   Click to copy
Wild, Benjamin, et al. “AUTOGRAF—AUTomated Orthorectification of GRAFfiti Photos.” Heritage, vol. 5, no. 4, 2022, pp. 2987–3009, doi:10.3390/heritage5040155.

BibTeX   Click to copy

  title = {AUTOGRAF—AUTomated Orthorectification of GRAFfiti Photos},
  year = {2022},
  issue = {4},
  journal = {Heritage},
  pages = {2987-3009},
  volume = {5},
  doi = {10.3390/heritage5040155},
  author = {Wild, Benjamin and Verhoeven, Geert J. and Wieser, Martin and Ressl, Camillo and Schlegel, Jona and Wogrin, Stefan and Otepka-Schremmer, Johannes and Pfeifer, Norbert}

Admired and despised, created and destroyed, legal and illegal: Contemporary graffiti are polarising, and not everybody agrees to label them as cultural heritage. However, if one is among the steadily increasing number of heritage professionals and academics that value these short-lived creations, their digital documentation can be considered a part of our legacy to future generations. To document the geometric and spectral properties of a graffito, digital photographs seem to be appropriate. This also holds true when documenting an entire graffiti-scape consisting of 1000s of individual creations. However, proper photo-based digital documentation of such an entire scene comes with logistical and technical challenges, certainly if the documentation is considered the basis for further analysis of the heritage assets. One main technical challenge relates to the photographs themselves. Conventional photographs suffer from multiple image distortions and usually lack a uniform scale, which hinders the derivation of dimensions and proportions. In addition, a single graffito photograph often does not reflect the meaning and setting intended by the graffitist, as the creation is frequently shown as an isolated entity without its surrounding environment. In other words, single photographs lack the spatio-temporal context, which is often of major importance in cultural heritage studies. Here, we present AUTOGRAF, an automated and freely-available orthorectification tool which converts conventional graffiti photos into high-resolution, distortion-free, and georeferenced graffiti orthophotomaps, a metric yet visual product. AUTOGRAF was developed in the framework of INDIGO, a graffiti-centred research project. Not only do these georeferenced photos support proper analysis, but they also set the basis for placing the graffiti in their native, albeit virtual, 3D environment. An experiment showed that 95 out of 100 tested graffiti photo sets were successfully orthorectified, highlighting the proposed methodology’s potential to improve and automate one part of contemporary graffiti’s digital preservation.
Included in the Web of Science Core Collection
Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)

Web of Science Identifier: 000902751500001
Journal Impact Factor (2022): N/A


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